1. See Woodrow Whidden, "What Have We Thought and How Then should We Think About Christ’s ‘Sinful, Fallen Nature’?" p. 14-15. Whidden acknowledged that he was indebted to Jean Zurcher for the three categories. (This paper is a condensed version of a presentation given at the Sanctuary Bible Conference held at Berrien Springs, MI, June 11, 1997). (return to text)

  2. In 1957, Questions on Doctrine (written by selected men in the General Conference) pages 59, 60 states that the sinful fallen nature of Christ took was borne "vicariously." "Again we remark, Christ bore all this [hereditary weaknesses, frailties and infirmities] vicariously just as vicariously He bore the iniquities of us all. It is in this sense that all should understand the writings of Ellen G. White when she refers occasionally to sinful, fallen, deteriorated human nature." (return to text)

    The authors of Questions on Doctrine used "vicarious" terminology to explain away Ellen White’s clear statements concerning the kind of human nature Christ took. George Knight made copy of this expression and used it as a means to interpret Jones on this same topic:

    "His use of language is often confusing. Jones’s extremes in expression and thought do not help the situation. In addition to those problems, it is often impossible to tell exactly what he meant. For example, we can interpret many of his discussions of Christ’s [human] nature to mean that Christ took our sinful nature vicariously, just as He bore our sins on the cross vicariously when He became sin for us." George Knight, From 1888 to Apostasy, p. 137. He repeats this in his latest, A User-Friendly Guide to the 1888 Message, p. 155.

    That Christ took our fallen nature vicariously has to be the most untenable of all arguments devised, especially to explain apparent contradiction as in the case of Questions on Doctrine. By what authority do they make such a declaration? Not one statement from inspiration. The statements declare the opposite.

  3. Geoffrey Paxton, The Shaking of Adventism, p. 153. (return to text)

  4. Ibid. (return to text)

  5. Robert Lee Hancock, "The Humanity of Christ: A Brief Study of Seventh-day Adventist Teachings on the Nature of Christ," pp 26,27. This is a term paper which he presented to the faculty of the Department of Church History at Andrew’s University, July, 1962. (return to text)

  6. R.W. Schwarz, Light Bearers to the Remnant, p. 447. (return to text)

  7. Ibid., p. 447. (return to text)

  8. S.N. Haskell Letter to Ellen White, Battle Creek, MI, September 25, 1900 (DF 190, White Estate). (return to text)

  9. S.N. Haskell, "Christ in Holy Flesh, or A Holy Christ in Sinful Flesh," RH October 2, 1900. (return to text)

  10. Ibid. (return to text)

  11. Ibid. (return to text)

  12. R.S. Donnell, written while president of the Indiana Conference. In 1907 these were published in a tract entitled "What I Taught in Indiana." (DF 190, White Estate). (return to text)

  13. R.S. Donnell, "The Nature of Christ and Man," an essay written from Memphis, TN, and sent to his colleague S.S. Davis (DF 190, White Estate). (return to text)

  14. S.S. Davis, Letter to I. J. Hankins, Elnora, Indiana, March 15, 1903. (return to text)

  15. S.G. Huntington, "The Son of Man", p. 13. A tract published by the Mission Press, La Fayette, Indiana about 1900. (return to text)

  16. G.A. Roberts, "The Holy Flesh Fanaticism," June 11, 1923, (DF 190, White Estate). (return to text)

  17. Letter 132, 1900 to Elder and Mrs. Haskell. (Recorded in See Selected Messages, Book Two, pp. 36, 37.) (return to text)

  18. E.J. Waggoner, GCB 1901, pp. 403-405. (return to text)

  19. Ellen G. White, GCB April 17, 1901, pp. 419-420. (return to text)

  20. Ellen G. White, RH July 17,1900. (return to text)

  21. Ellen G. White, YI Dec. 20, 1900 (4BC 1147). (return to text)

  22. Ellen G. White, MS 141,1901 (7BC 926). (return to text)

  23. From Letter K. 303, September 4, 1903, (DF 63, White Estate). Handwritten in the margin, after the letter was typed, are found these words: "to meet and be subjected" and "working in every conceivable manner to destroy his faith." (return to text)

  24. E.J. Waggoner, GCB 1901, pp. 403-405. (return to text)

  25. S.G. Huntington, "The Son of Man", p. 3, (A tract published by the Mission Press, La Fayette, Indiana, 1900). (return to text)

  26. Ibid. (return to text)

  27. Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus, December 8, 1854. (An edited edition is found in the new Catechism of the Catholic Church, paragraph 491). (return to text)

  28. Ibid. (return to text)

  29. Ibid. (return to text)

  30. Catechism of the Catholic Church, Liguori, MO: Liguori Publications, 1994: 966 (this is the paragraph number of the book. Paragraph numbering from the Catechism will be used in this paper because of different paginations between hard and soft cover editions). (return to text)

  31. Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus. (return to text)

  32. Catechism of the Catholic Church: 492. (return to text)

  33. Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus. (return to text)

  34. Catholic Belief, page 214 [American ed.: June 5, 1884]. (return to text)

  35. Ludwig Ott, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, tr. Patrick Lynch, Rockford, IL: TAN Books & Publishers, 1974 (orig. 1952 in German), p. 200. (return to text)

  36. Ibid.: 216, 217. (return to text)

  37. James Cardinal Gibbons, The Faith of Our Fathers, NY: P. J. Kennedy & Sons, rev. ed., 1917, pp.198,199. (return to text)

  38. Fulton Sheen, The World’s First Love, pp. 15, 16, 48. (return to text)

  39. Daniel 7:25. (return to text)

  40. Pope Boniface VIII, in the Papal Bull, Unam Sanctam, 1302 A.D. (return to text)

  41. Thomas F. Torrance, The Meditation of Christ, Helmers and Howard Publishers, 1992, pp. 39, 40. (return to text)

  42. A. T. Jones, "The Third Angel’s Message", No. 14, General Conference Bulletin, 1895, pp. 266, 267. (return to text)

  43. A. T. Jones, "The Third Angel’s Message", No. 13, General Conference Bulletin, 1895, p. 233. (return to text)

  44. "Bible Study in the book of Romans" #12, General Conference Bulletin, 1891. (return to text)

  45. "Ancient Homily for Holy Saturday" cited in Catechism of the Catholic Church: 635. (return to text)

  46. Catechism of the Catholic Church: 631. (return to text)

  47. Catechism of the Catholic Church: 632. (return to text)

  48. Catechism of the Catholic Church: 633. (return to text)

  49. Hebrews 2:14; Romans 8:3; Hebrews 2:17; Matthew 8:17; Hebrews 4:15. (return to text)

  50. Revelation 3:21. (return to text)

  51. Woodrow W. Whidden III, Ellen White on the Humanity of Christ, p. 13. (return to text)

  52. Ibid. p. 49. (return to text)

  53. Testimonies to Ministers, pp. 91, 92. (return to text)


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