Rom. 5:9,10-Justification and
reconciliation presented as parallel accomplishments "in
Christ." Both are presented as facts of history. Both were laid
down or placed in the death of Christ.
"having been justified [nom., pi., part., aorist, passive] now [intensive
particle—'by all means, be sure, surely'] by his blood
"having been reconciled [nom., pi., part., aorist, passive] ..."
"to God by the death of His Son" ... "when we
Paul in using parallelism
here emphasizes the fact that this justification and
reconciliation are historical facts rooted in the cross of
Christ. When He died and while we were enemies we were
reconciled and justified in that act. This had to be a legal
or forensic, and not an experiential, reconciliation and
justification. As a person repents of his/her sins and
believes in what Christ has done for His enemies, (s)he is
reconciled or justified by a heartfelt faith, experientially.
reconciliation cannot be separated from Christ. They reside
in Him. "God was in Christ reconciling the world (i.e.
the world of sinners, mankind, Adam) to Himself' (2
5:19). Likewise God was "in Christ" justifying the
world unto Himself. Christ is our justification. We are to
accept Him as our justification, our reconciliation, for
with Christ is God and justification as well as
In order for us to be
reconciled Christ had to be estranged from God. Christ took
our alienation, our separation, our estrangement in order
for us to be reconciled to God. In Christ's cry of
dereliction we may learn the fact of His separation from God
and also the fact of mankind's reconciliation or restoration
to favor with God. When Christ cried out, "My God, My
God, why have you forsaken Me?" there was a disruption
of the bond between
Himself and God in order for
us to be reconciled. In the very instant of their separation
was our reconciliation. Our reception of reconciliation does
not make it so. Reconciliation is a legacy from the past.
Faith appropriates that reconciliation that took place at
5:12-18—Parallel persons, the
The universality of sin in Adam
is presented first.
Next the universality of grace
"in Christ" is shown to far surpass the universality
Verses 13-17 are parenthetical.
Verse 18 is a restatement of
verse 12 and concludes the proposition begun in verse 12. Verse
12 is not an anacoluthon. In this verse, Paul laid down a
proposition that calls for a contrast. Verses 13 through 17 are
parenthetical in which he leads us into a discussion of
contrasts between the two Adams as representatives of the race
concerning sin and grace, condemnation and acquittal. The
proposition from verse 12 is restated, then concluded in verse
just as through one man sin
entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to
all men, for that [or "in whom"]19 all sinned ...
(Verses 13-17 are parenthetical)
(Premise from vs 12 restated:)
as through one man's offense
judgment came to all men, resulting in condemnation,
(Conclusion of verse 12:) even so
through one Man's righteous act the free gift came to all men,
resulting in justification of life.
- The divine formula for justification is
by grace alone, by Christ's blood alone, through faith alone (Romans 3:24;
5:9, 1). That grace "was given to us in Christ Jesus before time
began." Christ's death was given to us "in due time." And
"a measure of faith" is given to every person in the world (2
Timothy 1:9; Romans 5:6; 12:3). Christ has been given to every person on
earth. And every person has been given to Christ. He is the
representative and head of the race. Embodied in that Gift are the
judicial gifts of grace and justification. Christ was judicially
condemned and punished. In that very act, judicially, the human race was
justified or acquitted. Neither condemnation nor justification can be
separated from His person. At the same time He received our
condemnation, the fallen race was acquitted and we were given legal
Acts 17:16-34—Corporate solidarity
of the human race in Christ
Presented in the context of the two
representatives of the race (:26-28).
Paul was provoked concerning the
idolatry of the Athenians (:16).
He reasoned with both Jews and Gentiles
in the synagogue and in the public forum
Paul preached the gospel to the pagan philosophers (:18).
This was a new doctrine to those
Athenian philosophers (:19).
Paul used idols and Greek poetry as
points of contact between those people and the gospel (:23, 28).
The pantheistic Greeks believed that
"god" was in everything. Everything to them was
"god." They were god since their god was in them. Paul, in
countering this false religious belief, presented them as "in"
Paul's answer to their questions began
with "I perceive that you are very religious" based on their
objects of worship (:22, 23).
He presented to them "the unknown
God" whom they worshiped ignorantly (:23-25).
Next he presented the first Adam and
the consequent nations of men from out of him (:26).
Here Paul presents corporate as well as
Corporate, in that all nations of
people came from Adam;
Universal, in the sense that this
covers every person on earth. Out of one, everyone, everywhere.
God is in control of history, and as
man learns this it should lead him to seek Christ (:27).
Paul next quotes pagan poets to prove
that "we" [both believers such as Paul and non-believers such
as the philosophers] are "in" Christ who gives us live and
This poem dedicated to Zeus was used by
Paul for the "in Christ" motif. The line from the poem,
"For we are also His offspring" had to do with spirituality,
as well as physical existence.
Paul led those self-worshiping pantheists
from Zeus to the Creator and Redeemer of the human race.
He confronted pagan idol worship by
presenting those pagans as "in" Christ along with himself.
Finally, after first presenting the
gospel, Paul presented the law in a corporate and universal command to
This reason to repent for practicing
idolatry was based on the coming judgment: "Truly, these times of
ignorance God overlooked, but now commands all men
everywhere to repent, because He has appointed a day in
which He will judge the world in righteousness in the Man whom
He has ordained. He has given assurance of this to all by
raising Him from the dead" (verses 30-31).
Paul knew his audiences. In comparing
Paul's methodologies in working with believers and non-believers we find
that he used different approaches, but with the same goal in mind,
namely, repentance and faith resulting in an experienced salvation.
As recorded in Acts 13:14-23, while at
Antioch in Pisidia, Paul began with the law and sacred history from
Hebrew Scriptures to Jews and believing Gentiles. Then he led them to
the gospel. The Jews rejected, while the Gentiles accepted, the
In Athens Paul began with the gospel
and ended with the law(17:18, 30).
Both in Pisidia and in Athens Paul
presented the law and the gospel, albeit each in a different order, and
harvested precious souls for the Lord both ways.
In Pisidia Paul presented the
relationship between David and Jesus as important, but he did not
mention this in Athens because it held no weight with the Athenians. In
both cities Paul preached Jesus and His resurrection but in a different
order. This was because of different audiences.
Summary and Conclusion